I’m now very used to the referencing style used in education journals (e.g. “according to Author (1999)”), to the point where the numbered style more commonly used in science (e.g. “according to [1]”) really annoys me!

This year I’m supervising three undergraduate projects, and I’ve asked them to use the APA style for referencing in their reports.

It took me a while to find a way of doing this in LaTeX that I was happy with, so to smooth the path for my students I shared this version of the project template, where I’d made all the necessary changes to implement APA style:

% formatting of hyperlinks
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\hypersetup{
colorlinks,
linkcolor={red!50!black},
citecolor={blue!50!black},
urlcolor={blue!80!black}
}
% Use biblatex for references - change style= as appropriate
\usepackage[natbib=true,backend=biber,sorting=nyt,style=apa]{biblatex}
\renewcommand*{\bibfont}{\fontsize{10}{12}\selectfont}
% add your references to this file
\addbibresource{references.bib}

At the end of the document:

\printbibliography{}

And make sure to add references.bib to your project, with all the bibtex references. I’ve found Mybib.com a really useful tool for this, though I mainly use Mendely as my reference manager (and this can import easily into Overleaf).

Proofs are an important part of mathematics. In many courses, proofs will be important in two ways:

reading proofs – e.g. to understand new ideas in the course through the proofs of important results, and to see applications of earlier concepts or theorems,

writing proofs – e.g. to show understanding of ideas from the course by being able to apply them to solving “unseen” problems, including proving results that go a bit beyond what was covered in the course.

This post is focused on the first of these. Developing students’ abilities to read proofs is something that is not often done explicitly – there may be an assumption that students will pick it up by osmosis. There is some research into how to help students to develop these abilities (e.g., Hodds et al.. 2014), and a key part of this is having a good way to measure students’ level of comprehension of a given proof.

Proof comprehension framework

Mejia-Ramos et al. (2012) give a framework for assessing proof comprehension, with 7 different types of questions that can be asked:

Local

Holistic

Meaning of terms and statements

Logical status of statements and proof framework

Justification of claims

Summarizing via high-level ideas

Identifying modular structure

Transferring the general ideas or methods to another context

Illustrating with examples

You can see some more detail about these different categories in a recent talk by Pablo.

The framework is helpful when trying to write questions to assess students’ understanding of a given proof, as it gives ideas for different types of questions you can ask.

Examples

A few years ago, I used this framework to put together some multiple-choice proof comprehension questions for our Year 3 course, Honours Analysis.

My experience of these is that students found them quite hard – the mean score was around 75%, so they are not trivial for students to answer.

References

Hodds, M., Alcock, L., & Inglis, M. (2014). Self-Explanation Training Improves Proof Comprehension. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 45(1), 62. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.45.1.0062

Mejia-Ramos, J. P., Fuller, E., Weber, K., Rhoads, K., & Samkoff, A. (2012). An assessment model for proof comprehension in undergraduate mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 79(1), 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-011-9349-7