The Edinburgh Imaging Project (EIP) develops novel methods for imaging and monitoring of the Earth's subsurface, using methods from inverse theory, migration, tomography and data science
Edinburgh Imaging Project


We list our publications and expanded abstracts sorted by year.

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  • Xin Zhang and Andrew Curtis, 2022. Interrogating probabilistic inversion results for subsurface structural information. Geophysics Journal International, Volume 229, Issue 2, May 2022, Pages 750-757, (PDF)
  • Xuebin Zhao, Andrew Curtis, and Xin Zhang, 2022. Interrogating Subsurface Structures using Probabilistic Tomography: an example assessing the volume of Irish Sea basins. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. (PDF)
  • Xin Zhang, York Zheng, and Andrew Curtis, 2022. Surface wave dispersion inversion using an energy likelihood function. Arxiv Physics.(PDF)
  • Marra, Fairweather, Curtis, et al., 2022. Optical interferometry–based array of seafloor environmental sensors using a transoceanic submarine cable. Science, Vol 376, Issue 6595 Pages 874-879, .
  • Xin Zhang, Angus Lomas, Muhong Zhou, and Andrew Curtis, 2022. 3D Bayesian Variational Full Waveform Inversion. Arxiv pre-print (PDF)
  • Hugo Bloem, Andrew Curtis, and Daniel Tetzlaff, 2022. Introducing Conceptual Geological Information into Bayesian Tomographic Imaging. Arxiv pre-print (PDF)


  • Zhang, X. and Curtis, A., 2021. Bayesian geophysical inversion using invertible neural networks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, p.e2021JB022320. (PDF)
  • Xuebin Zhao, Andrew Curtis, Xin Zhang, Bayesian seismic tomography using normalizing flows, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 228, Issue 1, January 2022, Pages 213–239, (PDF)
  • Xin Zhang and Andrew Curtis, Bayesian full-waveform inversion with realistic priors, 2021. Geophysics, Volume 86, Issue 5, Pages A45-A49. (PDF)


  • R. Cao, S. Earp, S. de Ridder, A. Curtis, E. Galetti, 2020. Near-real time near-surface 3D seismic velocity and uncertainty models by wavefield gradiometry and neural network inversion of ambient seismic noise. Geophysics. 85(1), pp.KS13-KS27. DOI: (PDF)
  • Xin Zhang and Andrew Curtis, 2020. Variational Full-waveform Inversion. Geophysical J. Int. Express Lett. (PDF)
  • A. Nawaz and A. Curtis, 2020. Variational Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Attributes Jointly for Geological Facies and Petrophysical Rock Properties. Geophysics. (PDF)
  • Tant, K. Mulholland, A., Curtis, A., Gachagan, A., 2020. Effective Grain Orientation Mapping of Complex and Locally Anisotropic Media for Improved Imaging in Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing. Inverse Problems for Science and Engineering. (PDF)
  • X. Zhang and A. Curtis, 2020. Seismic tomography using variational inference methods. J. Geophys. Res. (PDF)
  • Bloem et al, 2020. Experimental Design for Fully Nonlinear Source Location Problems: Which Method Should I Choose (PDF)


Papers in journals/books:

  • S. Singh and A. Curtis, 2019. Imaging vertical interfaces using acoustic time reversal. Geophysics, 84(3), pp.Q1-Q11. DOI: 10.1190/GEO2018-0135.1 (PDF)
  • A. Nawaz and A. Curtis, 2019. Rapid Discriminative Variational Bayesian Inversion of Geophysical Data for the Spatial Distribution of Geological Properties. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth. DOI: 10.1029/2018JB016652 (PDF and Supplementary Material)
  • Y. Zhao and A Curtis, 2019. Relative source location using coda wave interferometry: method, code package, and application to mining induced earthquakes. Geophysics, 84(3), pp.F73-F84. doi: 10.1190/GEO2018-0601.1 (PDF)
  • A. Lomas and A. Curtis, 2019. An introduction to Marchenko methods for Imaging. Geophysics, 84(2), pp.F35-F45. doi: 10.1190/GEO2018-0068.1 (PDF)
  • J. Singh, A. Curtis, Y. Zhao, B. Cartwright-Taylor and I. Main, 2019. Coda Wave Interferometry for Accurate Simultaneous Monitoring of Velocity and Acoustic Source Locations in Experimental Rock Physics. J. Geophys. Res. (PDF)
  • S. Earp, A. Curtis, X. Zhang, F. Hansteen, 2019. Probabilistic Neural Network Tomography across Grane field (North Sea) from Surface Wave Dispersion Data. arXiv (PDF)
  • X. Zhang, F. Hansteen, A. Curtis, S. de Ridder, 2019. 1D, 2D and 3D ambient noise tomography using a dense passive seismic array installed on the North Sea seabed. J. Geophys. Res., in press. (PDF)
  • A. Lomas, S. Singh, A. Curtis, 2019. Imaging Vertical Structures using Marchenko Methods with Vertical Seismic Profile Data. Geophysics. (PDF)
  • A. Lomas and A. Curtis, 2019. Marchenko Methods in a Three-dimensional World. Geophys. J. Int. (PDF)
  • J. O. S. Hammond, R. England, N. Rawlinson, A. Curtis, K. Sigloch, N. Harmon, B. Baptie, 2019. The Future of Broadband Passive Seismic Acquisition. Astronomy and Geophysics (PDF)
  • A. Bell, C. Browitt, A. Curtis, C. Macdonald, I. Main, S. Peacock, N. Rawlinson, D. Storchak, A. Walker and A. Ziolkowski. British Seismology Meeting 2019: Frontiers of Seismology. Astronomy and Geophysics, in press.


Papers in journals/books:

  • X. Zhang, A. Curtis, E. Galetti, S. de Ridder, 2018. 3D Monte Carlo Surface Wave Tomography. Geophys. J. Int. (PDF)
  • C. Allmark, A. Curtis, E. Galetti, S. de Ridder, 2018. Seismic Attenuation from Ambient Noise across the North Sea Ekofisk Permanent Array. J. Geophys. Res. (PDF)
  • K. Tant, A. Mulholland, A. Curtis, W. Ijomah, 2018. Design-for-Testing for Improved Remanufacturability. Journal of Remanufacturing. (PDF)
  • E.Galetti and A. Curtis, 2018. Transdimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography. J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1029/2017JB015418 (PDF)
  • A. Nawaz & A. Curtis, 2018. Variational Bayesian Inversion of Seismically Derived Quasi-Localized Rock Properties for the Spatial Distribution of Geological Facies. Geophys. J. Int., v.214, pp.845–875. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggy163 (PDF)
  • K. Tant, E. Galetti, A. Mulholland, A. Curtis, A. Gachagan, 2018. A Transdimensional Bayesian Approach to Ultrasonic Travel-time Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing. Inv. Prob. 34, 095002 (29pp). doi: 10.1088/1361-6420/aaca8f (PDF)
  • C. da Costa Filho, G. Meles, A. Curtis, M. Ravasi, A. Kritski, 2018. Imaging strategies using focusing functions with applications to a North Sea field. Geophys. J. Int., v.213(1), pp.561–573. doi: (PDF)
  • A. Stork, C. Allmark, A. Curtis, M. Kendall, H. Huppert, D. White, 2018. Assessing the potential to use repeated ambient noise seismic tomography to detect CO2 leaks: Application to the Aquistore storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, v.71, pp.20-35. doi: (PDF)


Papers in journals/books:

  • S. de Ridder and Curtis, A., 2017. Seismic gradiometry using ambient seismic noise in an anisotropic Earth. Geophys. J. Int., vol 209, no. 2, pp. 1168-1179. DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx073 (PDF)
  • A. Nawaz and A. Curtis, 2017. Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Attributes for Geological Facies using a Hidden Markov Model. Geophys. J. Int., 208, pp.1184–1200. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw411 (PDF)
  • Y. Zhao, A. Curtis, B. Baptie, 2017. Locating micro-seismic sources with a single seismometer channel using coda wave interferometry. Geophys. Letters. Vol.82, No. 3, pp.A19–A24, doi: 10.1190/GEO2016-0404.1 (PDF)
  • C. A. da Costa Filho, G. A. Meles, A. Curtis. Elastic internal multiple analysis and attenuation using Marchenko and interferometric methods. Geophysics, Vol.82, No.2, pp.Q1-Q12, doi: 10.1190/geo2016-0162.1 (PDF)
  • E. Galetti, A. Curtis, B. Baptie, D. Jenkins, H. Nicolson. Transdimensional Love-wave tomography of the British Isles and shear-velocity structure of the East Irish Sea Basin from ambient-noise interferometry. Geophys. J. Int., Vol.208, pp. 36-58, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggw286 (PDF)

Expanded Abstracts:

  • Y. Zhao, A. Curtis, B. Baptie, 2017. Locating micro-seismic sources with a single seismometer channel using coda wave interferometry. Geophys. Letters. Vol.82, No. 3, pp.A19–A24, doi: 10.1190/GEO2016-0404.1 (PDF)
  • C. A. da Costa Filho, G. A. Meles, A. Curtis, M. Ravasi and A. Kritski. Imaging strategies using Marchenko focusing functions. 79th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2017, doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201701131 (PDF)
  • G. A. Meles, C. A. da Costa Filho, A. Curtis. Synthesising Singly-Scattered Waves (Primaries) from Multiply-Scattered Data. 79th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2017, doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201701056 (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • M. Ravasi, I. Vasconcelos, A. Kritski, A. Curtis, C. da Costa, G. Meles. Target-oriented Marchenko imaging of a North Sea field. Geophys. J. Int., 205, pp.99-104, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv528 (PDF).
  • C. da Costa Filho and A. Curtis, 2016. Attenuating multiple-related imaging artifacts using combined imaging conditions. Geophysics. Vol.81, No.6, pp.S469-S475, doi:10.1190/geo2016-0113.1 (PDF)
  • G. Meles, K. Wapenaar, A. Curtis, 2016. Reconstructing primary reflections in seismic data by Marchenko redatuming and convolutional interferometry. Geophysics, Vol.81, No.2, pp.Q25-Q26, doi:10.1190/GEO2015-0377.1 (PDF)
  • K. Loer, A. Curtis, G. Meles, 2016. Relating source-receiver interferometry to the inverse-scattering series provides a new method to estimate internal multiples. Geophysics, Vol.81, No.3, pp.Q27-Q40, doi:10.1190/GEO2015-0330.1 (PDF)

Expanded Abstracts:

  • KMM Tant, AJ. Mulholland, E Galetti, A Curtis, and A Gachagan. Mapping the material microstructure of safety critical components using ultrasonic phased arrays.  Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) 2016 IEEE International, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2016 (PDF)
  • E. Galetti and A. Curtis. Transdimensional Monte Carlo electrical resistivity tomography. Near Surface Geoscience 2016 – 22nd European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics (PDF).
  • G. Meles, K. Wapenaar, A. Curtis, C. da Costa Filho. Constructing Only the Primary Reflections in Seismic Data – Without Multiple Removal. EAGE 2016 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • S. de Ridder, A. Curtis. Anisotropic seismic noise gradiometry by elliptically-anisotropic wave equation inversion: an example at Ekofisk. EAGE 2016 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • C. A. da Costa Filho, G. A. Meles and A. Curtis, 2016, Elastic internal multiple prediction using Marchenko and interferometric methods, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2016, pp. 4545-4549, doi: 10.1190/segam2016-13577127.1 [PDF]
  • C. A. da Costa Filho, M. Ravasi and A. Curtis, 2016, Marchenko imaging of primaries and multiples in elastic media, 17th International Seismix Symposium [PDF]


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • K. Löer, G. Meles, A. Curtis. Automatic identification of multiply diffracted waves and their ordered scattering paths. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 137 (4), pp.1834-1845, doi:10.1121/1.4906839 (PDF).
  • C. da Costa Filho, M. Ravasi, A. Curtis. Elastic P and S wave autofocus imaging with primaries and internal multiples. Geophysics (PDF).
  • G. Meles, K. Löer, M. Ravasi, A. Curtis, C. A. da Costa Filho. Internal multiple prediction and removal using Marchenko autofocusing and seismic interferometry. Geophysics (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi, I. Vasconcelos, A. Curtis, G. Meles. Elastic extended images and velocity-sensitive objective functions using multiple reflections and transmissions. Geophys. J. Int. (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi, I. Vasconcelos, A. Curtis, A. Kritski. Vector-Acoustic reverse time migration of Volve OBC dataset without up/down decomposed wavefields. Geophysics (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi, G. Meles, A. Curtis, Z. Rawlinson, Y. Liu. Seismic interferometry by multi-dimensional deconvolution without wavefield separation. Geophys. J. Int (PDF).
  • E. Galetti, A. Curtis, B. Baptie and G. Meles. Uncertainty loops in seismic tomography. Physical Review Letter (PDF , SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL)

Expanded Abstracts:

  • Meles, G. A., K. Löer, M. Ravasi, A. Curtis and C. da Costa Filho, 2015, Internal Multiple Prediction – A New Approach Based on Seismic Interferometry and Marchenko Autofocusing, 77th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2015, doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201413397 [PDF]
  • Ravasi, M., I. Vasconcelos, A. Kritski, A. Curtis, C. A. da Costa Filho, 2015, Marchenko Imaging of Volve Field, North Sea, 77th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2015, doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201412938 [PDF]


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • C. da Costa Filho, M. Ravasi, A. Curtis, G. Meles, 2014, Elastodynamic Green’s function retrieval through single-sided Marchenko inverse scattering, Physical Review E: 90 (6), 063201. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.063201 (PDF).
  • G. Meles and A. Curtis. Fingerprinting ordered diffractions in multiply-scattered waves. Geophys. J. Int., pp.1701–1713, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu195 (PDF).
  • G. Meles and A. Curtis. Discriminating physical and non-physical diffracted energy in source-receiver interferometry. Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu054 (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi, I. Vasconcelos and A. Curtis. Beyond conventional migration: non-linear elastic subsalt imaging
    with transmissions and two-sided illumination.Geophys. J. Int.. (2014) 198, 1173–1185. (PDF)

Expanded Abstracts:

  • C. da Costa FilhoM. RavasiG. MelesA. Curtis. Elastic autofocusing via single-sided Marchenko inverse scattering. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2014: pp. 4603-4607 (PDF).
  • C. da Costa Filho, M. Ravasi, G. Meles, A. Curtis. Elastic Autofocusing. EAGE 2014 Expanded Abstract (PDFHTML).
  • M. Ravasi, I. Vasconcelos, A. Curtis. Beyond conventional migration: nonlinear subsalt imaging with transmissions and two-sided illumination. EAGE 2014 Expanded Abstract (PDF).


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • K. Löer, G. Meles, A. Curtis and I. Vasconcelos. Diffracted and pseudo-physical waves from spatially-limited arrays using source-receiver interferometry (SRI). Geophysical Journal International, 196, No.2, pp.1043-1059, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt435 (PDF and Supporting Material).
  • E. Galetti, D. Halliday, A. Curtis, 2013. A simple and exact acoustic wavefield modeling code for data processing, imaging and interferometry applications. Geophysics, 78, No. 6, pp. F17-F27. doi:10.1190/geo2012-0443.1 (PDF and Code)
  • M. Ravasi and A. Curtis. Nonlinear scattering based imaging in elastic media: theory, theorems and imaging conditions. Geophysics 78(3), pp. S137–S155, doi:10.1190/GEO2012-0286.1 (PDF)
  • G. Meles and A. Curtis. Physical and non-physical energy in scattered wave interferometry. The Journal of the Acoustic Society of America. Volume 133, Issue 6, pp. 3790-3801 (PDF)
  • M. Vasmel, J. O. A. Robertsson, D.-J. van Manen, A. Curtis, 2013. Immersive experimentation in a wave propagation laboratory. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Express Letters, 134, No. 6, pp. EL492 – EL498, doi: 10.1121/1.4826912 (PDF) .

Expanded Abstracts:

  • G. Meles, K. Löer, A. Curtis. Why scattered wave source-receiver interferometry (SRI) may out-perform inter-receiver interferometry. EAGE 2013 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • G. Meles and A. Curtis. Finger-Printing Diffractors Encountered by Multiply-Scattered Waves. EAGE 2013 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • G. Meles and A. Curtis. Discriminating physical and non-physical energy in wavefield interferometry. EAGE 2013 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi and A. Curtis. Nonlinear scattering-based imaging in elastic media. EAGE 2013 Expanded Abstract (PDF).
  • M. Ravasi and A. Curtis. Exact wavefield extrapolation for elastic reverse-time migration. EAGE 2013 Expanded Abstract (PDF).

Public Codes:

  • E. Galetti, D. Halliday, A. Curtis. Foldy Code for Numerically Exact Full Wavefield Modelling (ZIP).


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • A. Curtis, Y. Behr, E. Entwistle, E. Galetti, J. Townend, S. Bannister, 2012. The benefit of hindsight in observational science: retrospective seismological observations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,vol. 345-348, pp. 212-220 (PDF)
  • D. Halliday, A. Curtis and K. Wapenaar, 2012. Generalised PP+PS=SS from seismic interferometry. Geophys. J. Int., 189, pp. 1015–1024. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05396.x (PDF)
  • E. Galetti and A. Curtis, 2012. Generalised receiver functions and seismic interferometry. Tectonophysics. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2011.12.004 (PDF)
  • S. King and A. Curtis, 2012. Suppressing nonphysical reflections in Green’s function estimates using source-receiver interferometry. Geophysics, 77(1), pp. Q15-Q25. doi: 10.1190/GEO2011-0300.1 (PDF)
  • H. Nicolson, A. Curtis, B. Baptie and E. Galetti, 2012. Seismic Interferometry and Ambient Noise Tomography in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 123, Issue 1, pp. 74-86. doi: 10.1016/j.pgeola.2011.04.002 (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • S. King and A. Curtis, 2011. Velocity analysis using both reflections and refractions in seismic interferometry. Geophysics, 76(5) pp. SA83–SA96. doi:10.1190/GEO2011-0008.1 (PDF)
  • C. Duguid, D. Halliday and A. Curtis, 2011. Source-Receiver Interferometry for Seismic Wavefield Construction and Ground Roll Removal. The Leading Edge, 30(8), pp. 838-843. (PDF)
  • S. King, A. Curtis and T. Poole, 2011. Interferometric velocity analysis using physical and nonphysical energy. Geophysics, Vol.76, No.1, pp. SA35-SA49, doi: 10.1190/1.3521291 (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • A. Curtis and D. Halliday, 2010. Source-receiver wave field interferometry. Physical Review E, Vol.81, No.4, pp. 046601-1 – 046601-10. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.046601 (PDF)
  • A. Curtis and D. Halliday, 2010. Directional balancing for seismic and general wavefield interferometry. Geophysics, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. SA1–SA14. doi: 10.1190/1.3298736 (PDF)
  • D. Halliday and A. Curtis. An interferometric theory of source-receiver scattering and imaging. Geophysics, Vol.75, No.6 pp.SA95–SA103. doi: 10.1190/1.3486453 (PDF)
  • K. Wapenaar, E. Slob, R. Snieder, A. Curtis. Tutorial on seismic interferometry. Part 2: Underlying theory and new advances. Geophysics, Vol.75, No.5, pp.75A211–75A227. doi: 10.1190/1.3463440 (PDF; also, Part 1 (basic principles and applications) is available Here)
  • D. Halliday, A. Curtis, P. Vermeer, C. Strobbia, A. Glushchenko, D-J. van Manen, J. O. A. Robertsson. Interferometric ground-roll removal: Attenuation of direct and scattered surface waves in single-sensor data. Geophysics, Vol.75, No.2, pp. SA15-SA25. doi: 10.1190/1.3360948 (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • A. Curtis, H. Nicolson, D. Halliday, J. Trampert and B. Baptie, 2009. Virtual seismometers in the subsurface of the Earth from seismic interferometry. Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, pp. 700–704, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO615, (Article PDF and Supplementary Material PDF)
  • D. Halliday and A. Curtis, 2009. Generalized optical theorem for surface waves and layered media. Phys. Rev. E 79, 056603, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.056603 (PDF)
  • D. Halliday and A. Curtis, 2009. Seismic interferometry of scattered surface waves in attenuative media. Geophys. J. Int. 178, pp. 419–446, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04153.x (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • D. Halliday and A. Curtis 2008. Seismic interferometry, surface waves, and source distribution. Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03918.x (PDF)
  • D. Halliday, A. Curtis, E. Kragh 2008. Seismic surface waves in a suburban environment – active and passive interferometric methods. The Leading Edge, Vol. 27, No. 2, doi:10.1190/1.2840369, pp. 210-218. (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • D-J van Manen, J. Robertsson, and A. Curtis 2007. Exact wavefield simulation for finite-volume scattering problems. J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. Express Letters, Vol. 122, No. 4, pp. EL115-EL121, DOI: 10.1121/1.2771371. (PDF)
  • David Halliday, Andrew Curtis, Dirk-Jan van Manen, Johan Robertsson 2007. Interferometric surface wave isolation and removal. Geophysics, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp.A69–A73. (PDF)


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • A. Curtis, Peter Gerstoft, Haruo Sato, Roel Snieder, Kees Wapenaar 2006. Seismic Interferometry – Turning Noise into Signal. The Leading Edge, Vol. 25(9), pp.1082-1092. Received “Honorable Mention” in the Category of Best Paper in TLE. To be included in Geophysics Reprint Series book, “Seismic Interferometry” edited by K. Wapenaar, D. Draganov, and J. Robertsson. (PDF).
  • D.-J. van Manen, A. Curtis and J. O. A. Robertsson 2006. Interferometric modelling of wave propagation in inhomogeneous elastic media using time-reversal and reciprocity. Geophysics, vol. 71(4), pp. SI47-SI60 (PDF).


Papers in journals/books (published):

  • D.-J. van Manen, J. O. A. Robertsson and A. Curtis 2005. Modeling of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Phys. Rev. Lett., 94 (16), pp. 164301-1 – 164301-4. (PDF)



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