Reading materials

The following scholarly titles provide much food for thought on the related topics of child labour, childhood and children, slavery and slave exploitation as well as the exploitation of human labour more broadly. The list is by no means exhaustive, but it is hoped that it will provide a suitable starting point for anyone interested in these areas of research, whether in Roman antiquity or in one or other (more) modern geography.

Aasgaard, R. 2006. ‘Children in antiquity and early Christianity: research history and central issues’, Familia 33: 23-46

Bodel, J. 2011. ‘Slave labour and Roman society’, in K. Bradley and P. Cartledge (edd.) The Cambridge World History of Slavery, 1: The Ancient Mediterranean World (Cambridge), 311-336

Bonner, S. 1977. Education in Ancient Rome (London)

Boulvert, G. 1970. Esclaves et affranchis impériaux sous Haut-Empire: Rôle politique et administrative (Naples)

Bradley, K. 1994. Slavery and Society at Rome (Cambridge)

Bradley, K. 1991. Discovering the Roman Family. Studies in Roman Social History (Oxford)

Bradley, K. R. 1985. ‘Child labour in the Roman world’, Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques 12: 311-330

Braun, H. and Valentin, M. 1989. Villermé et le travail des enfants (hier et aujourd’hui) (Paris)

Bureau international du travail. 1935. La réglementation du travail des enfants et jeunes gens. Etudes et documents. Série I (Travail des femmes et des enfants). No 3 (Genève)

Capasso L. and Di Domenicantonio L. 1998. ‘Work related syndesmoses on the bones of children who died at Herculaneum’, The Lancet 352: 1634.

Caty, R. ed. 2002. Enfants au travail. Attitudes des élites en Europe occidentale et méditerranéenne aux XIXe et XXe siècles (Aix-en-Provence)

Chantraine, H. 1967. Freigelassene und Sklaven im Dienst der römischen Kaiser. Studien zu ihrer Nomenklatur (Wiesbaden)

Cunningham, H. 2005. Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500, 2nd edition (London and New York)

Cunningham, H. 1998. ‘Histories of childhood’, The American Historical Review 103: 1195-1208

Cunningham, H. 1990. ‘The employment and unemployment of children in England c.1680–1851’, Past & Present 126: 115–150

David, P. A., Gutman, H. G., Sutch, R., Temin, P., and Wright, G. (edd.) 1976. Reckoning with Slavery. A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery (Oxford)

De Herdt, R. 2011. ‘Child labour in Belgium 1800-1914’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 175-192

Evans Grubbs, J. and Parkin, T. edd. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Childhood and Education in the Classical World (Oxford)

Fogel, R. W. and Engerman, S. L. 1974. Time on the Cross. The Economics of American Slavery (Boston and Toronto)

Flach, D. 1990. Römische Agrargeschichte (München)

Gamauf, R. 2012. ‘Kindersklaven in klassischen römischen Rechtsquellen’, in Heinen ed. 2012: 231-260

Gardiner, D. 1929. English Girlhood at School. A Study of Women’s Education through Twelve Centuries (London)

Giardina, A. 2000. ‘Bambini in miniera: Quartulus e gli altri’, in G. Paci ed. ΕΠΙΓΡΑΦΑΙ: Miscellanea epigrafica in onore di Lidio Gasperini (Tivoli), 407-416

Goldberg, P. J. P. 1992. Women, Work, and Life Cycle in a Medieval Economy. Women in York and Yorkshire c. 1300-1520 (Oxford)

Gubin, E. 2011. ‘Elites, employers, child labour and compulsory education in Belgium before 1914’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 193-208

Gummerus, H. 1906. Der römische Gutsbetrieb nach den Schriften des Cato, Varro und Columella (Leipzig)

Hafter, D. M. ed. 1995. European Women and Preindustrial Craft (Bloomington and Indianapolis)

Hanawalt, B. A. 1993. Growing up in Medieval London. The Experience of Childhood in History (New York and Oxford)

Hanson, C. and Griffith, H. F. 2016. ‘Tanning, spinning, and gathering together: intergenerational indigenous learning in textile arts’, Engaged Scholar Journal 2.1: 225-246

Heinen, H. ed. 2012. Kindersklaven – Sklavenkinder. Schicksale zwischen Zuneigung und Ausbeutung in der Antike und im interkulturellen Vergleich (Stuttgart)

Heitland, W. E. 1921. Agricola: A Study of Agriculture and Rustic Life in the Greco-Roman World from the Point of View of Labour (Cambridge)

Herlihy, D. 1990. Opera Muliebria. Women and Work in Medieval Europe (Philadelphia)

Herlihy, D. and Klapisch-Zuber, C. 1978. Les Toscans et leurs familles: une étude du catasto florentin de 1427 (Paris)

Herrmann-Otto E. 1994. Ex ancilla natus. Untersuchungen zu den “Hausgeborenen” Sklaven und Sklavinnen im Westen des römischen Kaiserreiches (Stuttgart)

Hetherington, P. 2002. Settlers, Servants and Slaves. Aboriginal and European Children in Nineteenth-Century Western Australia (Crawley)

Heywood, C. 2011. ‘Child labour and child labour reform in nineteenth-century France: an international perspective’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 137-158

Hindman, H. D. 2011. ‘Understanding the persistence of child labor in United States crop agriculture’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 391-416

Hindman, H. D. 2002. Child Labor: An American History (Armonk, NY)

Hoerder, D., van Nederveen Meerkerk, E. and Neunsinger, S. edd. 2015. Towards a Global History of Domestic and Caregiving Workers (Leiden and Boston)

Holleran, C. 2016. ‘Labour mobility in the Roman world: a case study of mines in Iberia’, in de Ligt and Tacoma edd. 2016: 95-137

Honeyman, K. 2007. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820. Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force (Aldershot)

Hopkins, K. 1978. Conquerors and Slaves. Sociological Studies in Roman History, Vol. 1 (Cambridge)

Horn, P. 1974. The Victorian Child (Kineton)

Humphries, J. 2013. ‘Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution’, The Economic History Review 66: 395-418

Humphries, J. 2011. ‘Child labor: lessons from the historical experience of today’s industrial economies’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 35-60

Humphries, J. 2010. Childhood and Child Labour in the British Industrial Revolution (Cambridge)

Jongman, W. 2003. ‘Slavery and the growth of Rome. The transformation of Italy in the second and first centuries BCE’, in G. Woolf and C. Edwards edd. Rome the Cosmopolis (Cambridge), 100-122

Joshel, S. R. 1992. Work, Identity and Legal Status at Rome. A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions (Norman and London)

Joshel, S. R. and Hackworth Petersen, L. 2014. The Material Life of Roman Slaves (Cambridge)

Kirby, P. 2011. ‘The transition to working life in eighteenth and nineteenth-century England and Wales’, in Lieten and van Nederveen Meerkerk edd. 2011: 119-158

Kirby, P. 2005. ‘How many children were “unemployed” in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England?’, Past & Present 187: 187-202

Kirby, P. 2003. Child labour in Britain, 1750-1870 (London)

Klapisch-Zuber, C. 1985. Women, Family, and Ritual in Renaissance Italy (Chicago and London)

Klapisch-Zuber, C. 1981. ‘Célibat et service féminins dans la Florence du XVe siècle’, Annales de Démographie Historique (Démographie historique et condition feminine): 289-302

Laes, C. 2015. ‘Children and their occupations in the city of Rome (300-700 CE)’, in idem, Mustakallio and Vuolanto edd. 2015: 79-109

Laes, C., Mustakallio, K. and Vuolanto, V. edd. 2015. Children and Family in Late Antiquity. Life, Death and Interaction (Leuven and Walpole, MA)

Laes. C. 2011. Children in the Roman Empire. Outsiders Within (Cambridge)

Laes, C. 2009a. ‘Pedagogues in Greek inscriptions in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity’. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 171: 113-122

Laes, C. 2009b. ‘Paedagogues in Latin inscriptions’. Epigraphica 71: 303-325

Laes, C. 2007. ‘School-teachers in the Roman Empire: a survey of the epigraphical evidence’. Acta Classica 50: 109-127

Laes, C. 2008. ‘Child slaves at work in Roman antiquity’. Ancient Society 38: 235-283

Larsson Lovén, L. 2016. ‘Approaching the working lives of women’, in Wilson and Flohr edd. 2016: 200-221

Leppin, H. 1992. Histrionen. Untersuchungen zur sozialen Stellung von Bühnenkünstlern im Westen des Römischen Reiches zur Zeit der Republik und des Principats (Bonn)

Lieten, K. and van Nederveen Meerkerk, E. edd. 2011. Child Labour’s Global Past, 1650-2000 (Bern)

Lumpkin, D. K. and Douglas, D. W. 1937. Child Workers in America (New York)

Macieski, R. 2015. Picturing Class: Lewis W. Hine Photographs. Child Labor in New England (Amherst and Boston)

Mander, J. 2013. Portraits of Children on Roman Funerary Monuments (Cambridge)

Margo, R. A and Steckel, R. H. 1982. ‘The heights of American slaves. New evidence on slave nutrition and health’. Social Science Journal 6: 516-538

Marzano, A. 2015. ‘The variety of villa production. From agriculture to aquaculture’. In P. Erdkamp, K. Verboven and A. Zuiderhoek edd. Ownership and Exploitation of Land and Natural Resources in the Roman World (Oxford), 187-206

Mirković, M. 2005. ‘Child labour and taxes in the agriculture of Roman Egypt: ΠΑΙΣ and ΑΦΗΛΙΞ’, Scripta Classica Israelica 24: 139-149

Mohler, S. L. 1940. ‘Slave education in the Roman Empire’. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71: 262-280

Nicholas, D. 1995. ‘Child and adolescent labour in the late medieval city: a Flemish model in regional perspective’, The English Historical Review 110: 1103-1131

Nixon, L. 2002. ‘Review of: The Corrupting Sea. A Study of Mediterranean History by P. Horden, N. Purcell; The Mediterranean in the Ancient World by F. Braudel, R. De Ayala, P. Braudel, S. Reynolds’. Journal of Roman Studies 92: 195-197

Opitz, C. 1991. Frauenaltag im Mittelalter. Biographien des 13. Und 14. Jahrhunderts (Weinheim)

Perry, M. J. 2014. Gender, Manumission, and the Roman Freedwoman (Cambridge)

Pudsey, A. 2013. ‘Children in Roman Egypt’, in Evans Grubbs and Parkin edd. 2013: 484-509

Rathbone, D. 1981. ‘The development of agriculture in the “ager Cosanus” during the Roman Republic: problems of evidence and interpretation’. Journal of Roman Studies 71: 10-23

Rosenberg, C. M. 2013. Child Labor in America: A History (Jefferson, NC)

Roth, U. 2016. ‘Review of: M. J. Perry, Gender, Manumission, and the Roman Freedwoman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)’. Ancient History Bulletin Online-Reviews 6: 104-107

Roth, U. 2007. Thinking Tools. Agricultural Slavery Between Evidence and Models (London)

Roth, U. 2004. ‘Inscribed meaning: the vilica and the villa economy’. Papers of the British School at Rome 72: 101-124

Rotman, Y. 2017. ‘A will of their own? Children’s agency and child labour in Byzantium’, Medium Aevum 11: 135-157

Samaddar, R. 2018. ‘Theorising transit labour in informal mineral extraction processes’, in K. Lahiri-Dutt ed. Between the Plough and the Pick. Informal, Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in the Contemporary World (PLACE), 133-150

Samson, R. 1989, ‘Rural slavery, inscriptions, archaeology and Marx: a response to Ramsay MacMullen’s “Late Roman Slavery”’. Historia 38: 99-110

Scheidel, W. 2011. ‘The Roman slave supply’. In K. Bradley and P. Cartledge edd., The Cambridge World History of Slavery, 1: The Ancient Mediterranean World (Cambridge), 287-310

Scheidel, W. 2005. ‘Human mobility in Roman Italy, II: the slave population’, Journal of Roman Studies 95: 64-79

Scheidel, W. 2004. ‘Human mobility in Roman Italy, I: the free population’, Journal of Roman Studies 94: 1-26

Scheidel, W. 1997. ‘Quantifying the sources of slaves in the early Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 87: 156-169

Schulze, H. 1998. Ammen und Pädagogen. Sklavinnen und Sklaven als Erzieher in der antiken Kunst und Gesellschaft (Mainz)

Schuman, M. 2017. ‘History of child labor in the United States – part 1: little children working’. Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1|January (

Sutch, R. 1976. ‘The care and feeding of slaves’, in P. A. David, H. G. Gutman, R. Sutch, P. Temin, G. Wright edd. Reckoning with Slavery. A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery (Oxford), 231-301

Terpstra, N. 2005. Abandoned Children of the Italian Renaissance. Orphan Care in Florence and Bologna (Baltimore)

Tilly, L. A. and Scott, J. W. 1978. Women, Work, And Family (New York)

Treggiari, S. 1975. ‘Jobs in the household of Livia’. Papers of the British School at Rome 43: 48-77

Treggiari, S. 1973. ‘Domestic staff at Rome in the Julio-Claudian period, 27 BC to AD 68’. Histoire sociale/Social History 6: 241-255

Villermé, L-R. 1840. Tableau de l’état physique et moral des ouvriers, 2 vols. (Paris)

Weaver, P. R. C. 1972. Familia Caesaris. A Social Study of the Emperor’s Freedmen and Slaves (Cambridge)

Weaver, P. R. C. 1964. ‘The slave and freeman “cursus” in the imperial administration’. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 10: 74-92

Weiß, A. 2004. Sklave der Stadt. Untersuchungen zur öffentlichen Sklaverei in den Städten des Römischen Reiches (Stuttgart)

White, K. D. 1970. Roman Farming (London)

Wileman, J. 2005. Hide and Seek. The Archaeology of Childhood (Stroud)

Wilson, A. and Flohr, M. edd. 2016. Urban Craftsmen and Traders in the Roman World (Oxford)

Young, N. 1990. ‘The figure of the paidagogus in art and literature’. Biblical Archaeologist 53: 80-86

Young, N. 1987. ‘Paidogogus: the social setting of a Pauline metaphor’. Novum Testamentum 29: 150-176

Zaccaria, C. 2003. ‘Paedagoga: un “optional extra”?’. In A. Buonopane and F. Cenerini edd. Donna e lavoro nella documentazione epigrafica. Atti del I Seminario sulla condizione femminile nella documentazione epigrafica, Bologna, 21 novembre 2002 (Faenza), 23-41