A selection of photographs from my fieldwork in Kilwa, Tanzania.

A savanna woodland in Kilwa, composed of a grassy understorey and an open tree canopy. Ellie Wood (2017).

A fire burning in Likawage village, Kilwa. The fire came from a neighbouring village, but we do not know the cause. Ellie Wood (2018).

Burning is a common cause of degradation in southern Africa. This woodland around Kikole village, Kilwa, has been burned to clear land for agriculture. Ellie Wood (2018).

A transect walk through Mbwemkuru village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Charcoal is made locally and used as fuel in Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2017).

A map of Mchakama village, Kilwa, created by some of its residents. Ellie Wood (2018).

Baobab trees in Kikole village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

A sunset over Ngea village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Mandazi (a doughnut-like snack) about to be fried, ready for breakfast in Ngea village, Tanzania. Ellie Wood (2018).

Camping in Ngea village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Lake Maliwe, Kilwa, is home to hippos and crocodiles. Ellie Wood (2018).

Ndizi for dinner in Kilwa Masoko. Ellie Wood (2018).

Coconut trees in Ngorongoro, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Ngorongoro village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Enjoying chatting with an interviewee and drinking from dafu (a young coconut) in Ngorongoro village, Kilwa. Ellie Wood (2018).

Leaves and fruit used to help me identify the Mnjegele (Amblygonocarpus andogenesis) tree. Ellie Wood (2019).

Tree identifications using specimens I collected in the field. Jack Gladas (2019).

Helping with my tree IDs. Ellie Wood (2019).

Mercy and I giving feedback to our study participants in Likawage village. Joseph Protas (2019).

A fire calendar Mercy and I made based on our social science work in 2018. We gave copies to each of our study villages to show them what we had learned. Ellie Wood (2019).

Issa, Gilbert, Ellie and Abdalla: a field team chuffed to have finally finished a very dense plot! Mercy Mgaya (2019).

Abdalla, Mercy, Gilbert and Ellie: a field team chuffed to have finally finished a very dense plot! Issa Abdulhamani (2019).